Database management is the system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage and distribution to users and applications and modifying it as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failures. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data according to a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most used database type currently. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the necessity of changing several databases.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple types of databases through different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views that are based on different data models. It may also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.

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